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Saturday, July 4, 2015

Textile processing part-5.1



SHEARING
 


Mechanical Drying machine


It is quite common practice to shear the terry loops after manufacture in order to create a cut-pile effect. Many hand towels are sold with one face showing the traditional terry loop, while the other side shorn to give the velour effect.
Beach towels are sheared so as to give the design better clarity. Holiday towels are sheared for the same reason or to give embroidery designs a better base to show off their added value, and decorative nature.

Shearing is applied to the pile fabric, by passing it over a cylinder with blades like a giant cylindrical lawnmower. The velour fabric is then brushed with bristles set in a cylinder to remove cut bits of fiber. Brushing leaves the surface fiber lying in one direction so care must be taken to have all the fabrics in the same batch laid out in the same direction, or light will reflect off various pieces differently. The pile fabric is guided across the shearing table and is sheared between the shearing blades mounted on a cylinder and a fixed blade.

Please note that is it impossible to shear both sides of a towel because if you did the cut loops would fall out, the continuous loop is what holds the loop yarns together. Therefore you will only see sheared towels on one side.
Sheared towels have a velour effect and the color will change slightly give the direction from which you view the towel.

STENTERING

Stentering is a controlled straightening and stretching process of cloth which has been pulled out of shape due to the many vigorous finishing processes. The selvedges of the cloth are attached to a series of pins/hooks/clips as it is fed through a stenter machine which is an oven of controlled temperature. During the process, as the pins/hooks/clips are gradually placed further apart width ways, the cloth is slowly and permanently brought out to the desired width. Stentering gives the fabric particular dimensions of length and width, and eliminates creasing.